Peru Table of Contents
Government: On April 5, 1992, democratically elected President Fujimori staged military-backed self-coup, closing legislative and judicial branches and suspending 1979 constitution. Under 1979 constitution, executive power vested in president of the Republic, elected for a four-year term in elections held every five years. If no one presidential candidate received an absolute majority, the first- and second-place candidates ran in a runoff election. President could not serve two consecutive terms. Governed with a Council of Ministers that included a prime minister. Bicameral Congress had a 60-member Senate, elected on a district basis; and a 180-member Chamber of Deputies directly elected by proportional representation. Both houses elected for terms of five years coinciding with those of president and vice president. Needed two-thirds vote to override presidential veto. Supreme Court of Justice highest judicial authority; twelve members nominated by president for life terms. At regional level, 1979 constitution mandated establishment of regional governments. Regionalization initiated in 1988 but stalled in 1992. Direct elections for municipalities held every three years and for regions, every five years. Under international pressure, Fujimori began transition to his reformed version of democracy with the establishment of the Democratic Constituent Congress (Congreso Constituyente Democrático--CCD) to serve as autonomous, single-chamber legislative body. Its eighty members were elected on November 22, 1992 in free and fair elections. Nationwide municipal elections held on January 29, 1993.
Politics: Peru's multiparty system traditionally has had numerous political parties. Virtually unknown, Fujimori ran for president in 1990 as "outsider" candidate of Peru's newest party, Cambio '90 (Change '90). With help from business and informal sectors and Evangelical grassroots organizers, Fujimori elected overwhelmingly by electorate that had lost faith in established political system. Succeeded populist Alan García Pérez, controversial head of left-of-center American Popular Revolutionary Party (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana-- APRA), Peru's oldest party. Impatient with legislative and judicial hindrance of free-market reforms, Fujimori staged selfcoup on April 5, 1992, with full backing of armed forces, dissolving Congress, suspending 1979 constitution, and moving against political opposition led by García, who, accused of stockpiling weapons, fled into exile.
International Relations: In 1970s Peru's leftist military regime adopted independent, nonaligned course, expanding ties with communist world, particularly Soviet Union, becoming its largest military client in Latin America. Civilian government in 1980-85 deemphasized Peru's nonaligned stance and sought closer relationships with United States and Latin America. Under García, Peru reverted to antiimperialist, openly confrontational strategy, straining relations with international financial community. Isolated stance on nonpayment of foreign debt, country's economic and insurgency crises, and cholera epidemic strained relations with neighbors. Fujimori sought to repair Peru's standing in international financial community and relations improved. Despite signing of drug accord in May 1991, relations with United States remained strained over Fujimori's reluctance to increase United States and Peruvian military efforts in eradicating coca fields and improving government's human rights record.
Total United States economic aid for fiscal year 1991 US$60 million, including US$50 million for balance-of-payments support and US$10 million for counternarcotics assistance. For 1992, US$95 million in United States economic aid approved, including US$65 million for balance-of-payments support and US$30 million for counternarcotics assistance. Most of the 1992 aid suspended after the self-coup on April 5, 1992. US$55 million remained to be disbursed in early 1993 and will comprise part of the United States' support group contribution. For fiscal year 1993, US$100 million originally programmed but reduced to US$40 million, including US$25 million for balance-of-payments support. Release of funds in stages contingent on government's progress in improving human rights record. Prior to April 1992 coup, almost all of US$1.3 billion needed to clear arrears with IMF had been attained. Following coup, international community was unwilling to provide credit or aid until restoration of democratic government. This attitude changed in March 1993 when Peru cleared its arrears.
International Agreements and Membership: Member, Amazon Group; Andean Group; Customs Cooperation Council; Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean; Food and Agriculture Organization; Group of Eleven; Group of Nineteen; Group of Twenty-Four; Group of Seventy-Seven; General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; International Civil Aviation Organization; International Confederation of Free Trade Unions; International Development Association; International Fund for Agricultural Development; International Finance Corporation; International Labor Organization; IMF; International Maritime Satellite Organization; International Telecommunications Satellite Organization; International Criminal Police Organization; International Olympic Committee; International Organization for Migration; International Organization for Standardization; International Telecommunications Union; Latin American Economic System; Latin American Integration Association; League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; Nonaligned Movement; Organization of American States; Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean; Permanent Court of Arbitration; Rio Group; United Nations; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; United Nations Industrial Development Organization; United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group; Universal Postal Union; World Confederation of Labor; World Federation of Trade Unions; World Health Organization; World Intellectual Property Organization; World Meteorological Organization; and World Tourism Organization.
Data as of September 1992
Peru Table of Contents