Soviet Union Table of Contents
As production capacity has expanded, iron and steel production operations have consolidated in large-scale facilities, designated as combines. Among them was the Magnitogorsk metallurgical combine in the Urals, which in 1989 was the largest Soviet metallurgical combine. It produced nearly 16 million tons of metal annually. Long-term plans targeted Magnitogorsk for complete modernization of casting operations in the 1990s. Other important metallurgical centers in the Urals were at Chelyabinsk and Nizhniy Tagil. The Ukrainian Republic had major combines at Krivoy Rog, Zhdanov, Zaporozh'ye, and Makeyevka. The Cherepovets combine was north of Moscow, the Lipetsk and Oskol combines were south of Moscow, and the Orsk-Khalilovo combine was at the southern end of the Urals. The European sector was the traditional location of Soviet metallurgy because of available labor and materials. Newer metallurgical centers at Karaganda (in the Kazakh Republic) and the Kuzbass (see Glossary) were in parts of the Asian Soviet Union where coking coal was readily available. Nevertheless, metal-consuming industries and known iron ore reserves remained mainly west of the Urals, and major expansion of the metallurgy industry east of the Urals was considered unlikely in the near future.
Data as of May 1989