Country Listing

Spain Table of Contents




Figure 14. Organization of National Defense, 1988


Figure 15. Major Military Installations, 1988


Spanish-made CASA aircraft
Courtesy Embassy of Spain, Washington

As a result of the organizational reforms since 1977, culminating in the 1984 law that reaffirmed civil authority over the military establishment, command responsibility for the three armed services, was vested in the JEMAD, who reported directly to the minister of defense. The post was held by a senior officer of each of the three services on an alternating basis, with no specified term. The JEMAD was responsible for proposing major strategic objectives that formed the basis for the Joint Strategic Plan, prepared by the Ministry of Defense for the prime minister's approval. The JEMAD also prepared operational directives and plans derived from the Joint Strategic Plan, determined requirements for the conduct of military operations in case of war, coordinated logistics among the three services, and supervised the training and effectiveness of the services. To carry out these functions, the JEMAD had at his disposal a staff of five sections: plans and organization, intelligence, strategy, logistics, and telecommunications and electronic warfare.

At a senior level in the Ministry of Defense, the office of the secretary of state for defense was responsible for material and economic resources. The office was divided into three directorates general, concerned, respectively, with economic affairs, armaments and materiel, and infrastructure. At a parallel level, the under secretary of defense and his staff supervised technical services, personnel training, administrative services, and the general council.

The first JEMAD was Admiral Angel Liberal Lucini. In October 1986, Lucini was succeeded by Lieutenant General Gonzalo Puigserver Roma, an air force officer; the chiefs of staff of the three service branches were replaced at the same time. The wholesale removal of the top military leadership reportedly was carried out by Minister of Defense Narcis Serra i Serra in reaction to their opposition to several of the Socialist government's reform measures, including the reduction of compulsory military service to twelve months and changes in the military justice system that expanded the rights of individual soldiers (see Sources and Quality of Manpower; Military Justice , this ch.).

Data as of December 1988