Yugoslavia Table of Contents
Armed Forces: Yugoslav People's Army (YPA) included army, air force, and navy, administered in four military regions. In mid-1990 army numbered 140,000 active-duty personnel (of which 90,000 conscripts); air force, 32,000 (4,000 conscripts); and navy, 10,000 (4,400 conscripts, 900 marines). Estimated 450,000 reservists available in wartime. Paramilitary Territorial Defense Forces (TDF) numbered 1 million to 3 million in 1990; 860,000 in regular training. TDF largely funded by and under peacetime control of republic governments; designated to fight either independently or under YPA command during an invasion.
Major Military Units: Major force structure change in army in 1990. Thirty brigades formed, including tank, mechanized, mountain infantry, and one airborne brigade. Naval submarines, corvettes, and frigates centered in Adriatic Fleet, administered from Split; smaller craft in both river and Adriatic commands; main mission Adriatic coastal defense. Air force operated over 400 combat aircraft (in twelve combat squadrons) and 200 helicopters. Main missions of air force to maintain air superiority over Yugoslavia and to support ground and naval operations. Substantial reliance on imported heavy military equipment; most aircraft and naval vessels manufactured domestically. Strong effort to expand domestic arms industry in 1980s.
Military Budget: In 1989 defense expenditures listed as equivalent of over US$4.4 billion, nearly 7 percent of GNP.
Internal Security Forces: State Security Service (an intelligence and secret police organization) monitored émigrés and domestic dissidents. People's Militia troops (15,000) used to quell domestic disorders beyond control of regular police. Militia (regular police, 40,000) used for routine law enforcement.
Data as of December 1990