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Ghana Table of Contents


Table A. Chronology of Important Events

Period              Description


ca. 10,000 B.C.     Earliest recorded probable human habitation
                    within modern Ghana at site on Oti River. 

ca. 4000 B.C.       Oldest date for pottery at Stone Age site near

ca. 100 B.C.        Early Iron Age at Tema.


ca. A.D. 1200       Guan begin their migrations down Volta Basin
                    from Gonja toward Gulf of Guinea.

ca. 1298            Akan kingdom of Bono (Brong) founded. Other
                    states had arisen or were beginning to rise
                    about this time.

1471-82             First Europeans arrive. Portuguese build
                    Elmina Castle.

1500-1807           Era of slave raids and wars and of intense
                    state formation in Gold Coast.

1697-1745           Rise and consolidation of Asante Empire.


1843-44             British government signs Bond of 1844 with
                    Fante chiefs.

1873-74             Last Asante invasion of coast. British capture

1874                Britain establishes Gold Coast Colony. 

1878                Cocoa introduced to Ghana. 

1896                Anglo-Asante war leads to exile of
                    asantehene and British protectorate
                    over Asante. 


1900                First Africans appointed to colony's
                    Legislative Council.

1902                Northern Territories proclaimed a British

1914-18             Gold Coast Regiment serves with distinction in
                    East Africa.

1919                German Togo becomes a mandate under Gold Coast

1925                Constitution of 1925 calls for six chiefs to
                    be elected to Legislative Council.

1939-45             Gold Coast African forces serve in Ethiopia
                    and Burma.

1947                United Gold Coast Convention founded.

1949                Kwame Nkrumah breaks with United Gold Coast
                    Convention and forms Convention People's

1951                New constitution leads to general elections.
                    Convention People's Party wins two-thirds

1954                New constitution grants broad powers to
                    Nkrumah's government.

1956                Plebiscite in British Togoland calls for union
                    with Gold Coast.

                    Convention People's Party wins 68 percent of
                    seats in legislature and passes an
                    independence motion, which British Parliament

1957                British Colony of the Gold Coast becomes
                    independent Ghana on March 6. 

1958                Entrenched protection clauses of constitution
                    repealed; regional assemblies abolished;
                    Preventive Detention Act passed.

1960                Plebiscite creates a republic on July 1, with
                    Nkrumah as president. 

1964                Ghana declared a one-party state. Completion
                    of Akosombo Dam.

1966                While Nkrumah is in China, army stages widely
                    popular coup. National Liberation Council
                    comes to power.

1969                Progress Party, led by Kofi A. Busia, wins
                    National Assembly elections.

1972                Lieutenant Colonel Ignatius Acheampong leads a
                    military coup in January that brings National
                    Redemption Council to power. 

1978                Fellow military officers ease Acheampong from

1979                Junior officers stage Ghana's first violent
                    coup, June 4. Armed Forces Revolutionary
                    Council formed under Flight Lieutenant Jerry
                    John Rawlings. Hilla Limann elected president
                    in July. 

1981                Rawlings stages second coup, December 31.
                    Provisional National Defence Council
                    established with Rawlings as chairman. 

1983                First phase of Economic Recovery Program
                    introduced with World Bank and International
                    Monetary Fund support.

1985                National Commission for Democracy, established
                    to plan the democratization of Ghana's
                    political system, officially inaugurated in

1988-89             Elections for new district assemblies begin in
                    early December and continue through February

1990                Various organizations call for return to
                    civilian government and multiparty politics,
                    among them Movement for Freedom and Justice,
                    founded in August. 

1991                Provisional National Defence Council announces
                    its acceptance, in May, of multipartyism in
                    Ghana. June deadline set for creation of
                    Consultative Assembly to discuss nation's new

1992                National referendum in April approves draft of
                    new democratic constitution. Formation and
                    registration of political parties becomes
                    legal in May. 
                    Jerry Rawlings elected president November 3 in
                    national presidential election. Parliamentary
                    elections of December 29 boycotted by major
                    opposition parties, resulting in landslide
                    victory for National Democratic Congress. 

1993                Ghana's Fourth Republic inaugurated January 4
                    with the swearing in of Rawlings as president.

Late 1994-          Ghana hosts peace talks for warring factions
early 1995          of Liberian civil war. 

1995                President Rawlings pays official visit to the
                    United States March 8-9, first such visit by a
                    Ghanaian head of state in more than thirty

Data as of November 1994

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Ghana Table of Contents