Country Listing

Indonesia Table of Contents



Population: 195,683,531 in July 1992, with 1.7 percent annual growth rate. Sixty-nine percent in rural areas; high population density--major islands more than 500 persons per square kilometer; 100 persons or fewer per square kilometer in most densely populated Outer Islands (see Glossary). Jakarta largest city with 11.5 million in 1990. Government Transmigration Program (see Glossary) fosters relocation from densely populated to less-populated islands.

Ethnic Groups: Javanese 45 percent, Sundanese 14 percent, Madurese 7.5 percent, coastal Malays 7.5 percent, others 26 percent.

Language: Official language Bahasa Indonesia (see Glossary); 668 other languages also spoken. Languages with 1 million or more speakers (in estimated numerical order): Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Madurese, Minangkabau, Balinese, Bugisnese, Acehnese, Toba Batak, Makassarese, Banjarese, Sasak, Lampung, Dairi Batak, and Rejang.

Religion: Most (87 percent) observe Islam; 6 percent Protestant, 3 percent Roman Catholic, 2 percent Hindu, 1 percent Buddhist, 1 percent other.

Education: Twelve-year education system (primary--grades one through six; junior high school--grades seven through nine; and senior high school--grades ten through twelve). Mandatory primary level, optional secondary education. System supervised by Department of Education and Culture (nonreligious, public schools-- about 85 percent of total enrollment) and Department of Religious Affairs (religious, private, and semiprivate schools--about 15 percent of total enrollment). Adult literacy rate 77 percent in 1991. Emphasis on the Pancasila (see Glossary) in public schools; most religious schools emphasize traditional Islamic values. Some 900 institutions of higher education; University of Indonesia in Jakrata founded by Dutch in 1930s; Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta founded by Indonesians in 1946.

Health: In 1990 life expectancy 62.0 years for women and 58.4 for men; infant mortality rate 71 per 1,000 live births; annual population growth rate 2.0 percent. Three-tier community health centers in late 1980s; 0.06 hospital beds per 1,000 population lowest rate among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN--see Glossary) members. Traditional and modern health practices employed.

Data as of November 1992