Indonesia Table of Contents
Government: Unitary republic based on separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Constitution of 1945 in force, and power concentrated in presidency; mandate renewed by People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), which meets every five years to elect president and vice president. Unicameral elected House of People's Representatives (DPR) shares legislative authority with MPR, which comprises members of DPR plus others appointed by central government. Supreme Court highest court of land.
Politics: Emphasis on consensus, unity, and controlled political development. Political ideologies other than Pancasila illegal. Since 1973 all political groups identified with three legal political organizations: Golkar (see Glossary), government surrogate party; and two opposition parties, Muslim-oriented United Development Party (PPP) and secularist Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI). DPR elections every five years preceding MPR session. Golkar has held absolute majority since early 1970s.
Administrative Divisions: Twenty-four provinces (propinsi), two special regions (daerah istimewa), and one special capital city region (daerah khusus ibukota). These divisions subdivided into districts (kabupaten) and municipalities (kotamadya). Lower levels comprise subdistricts (kecamatan) and villages (desa).
Foreign Relations: Member of United Nations (UN), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Nonaligned Movement (chair 1992-95--see Glossary), and numerous other international organizations. Relations with all major nations based on principles of nonalignment.
Data as of November 1992