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Japan Table of Contents

Japan

ECONOMY

Gross National Product (GNP): US$3.7 trillion; per capita GNP US$29,760 in 1992.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): US$3.3 trillion; per capita GDP US$27,005 in 1991.

Resources: Coal reserves in north and southwest; otherwise, minerals negligible. Most resources, including almost all nonrenewable energy sources, imported.

Mining and Manufacturing: 29.3 percent of GDP in 1991. Basic industries: automobile manufacturing and consumer electronics. Nonferrous metals, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, bioindustry, aerospace, textiles, and processed foods also important. Older heavy industries--mining, steel, and shipbuilding- -in decline but still important worldwide. High-technology industries prevalent, e.g., semiconductors, computers, optical fibers, optoelectronics, video discs, facsimile and copy machines, and industrial robots.

Services: 55.7 percent of GDP in 1991. Wholesale and retail trade dominant. Advertising, data processing, publishing, tourism, leisure industries, and entertainment growing rapidly.

Agriculture: 2.3 percent of GDP in 1991. Intense cultivation of diminishing arable land, already in short supply. Rice grown on most farmland, and intercropping common. Heavy use of fertilizers, mechanization, and experimental high-yield crops. About 70 percent of country covered with forests; large lumber industry. World's largest fishing nation; seafood essential to food industry.

Exports: Approximately US$287 billion in 1990. Major partners United States, Germany, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan.

Imports: Approximately US$235 billion in 1990. Major partners United States, South Korea, Australia, China, Indonesia, and Taiwan.

Balance of Payments: Large and growing positive trade balance since early 1980s. Exports represented 55 percent, imports 45 percent of total annual trade in 1990.

Fiscal Year: April 1-March 31.

Exchange Rate: 110.42 = US$1 (December 1993).

Data as of January 1994