Japan Table of Contents
Armed Forces: Article 9 of Constitution precludes existence of offensive military forces. Self-Defense Forces numbered about 246,400 in 1992: Ground Self-Defense Force 156,000, Maritime Self-Defense Force 44,400, and Air Self-Defense Force 46,000. Reserves 48,400.
Military Units: Five armies, five maritime districts, and three air defense forces. Main bases in Hokkaido, eastern Honshu, central and western Honshu and Shikoku, and Kyushu.
Equipment: Ground Self-Defense Force: medium tanks, reconnaissance vehicles, armored personnel carriers, towed and self-propelled howitzers, mortars, single rocket and multiple rocket launchers, air defense guns, surface-to-surface missiles, antitank missiles, fixed-wing aircraft, attack helicopters, and transport helicopters. Maritime Self-Defense Force: submarines, guided missile destroyers, frigates with helicopters, frigates, patrol and coastal combatants, mine warfare ships, amphibious ships, auxiliaries, fixed-wing aircraft, and helicopters. Air SelfDefense Force: ground attack aircraft, fighters, reconnaissance aircraft, airborne early warning aircraft, transport aircraft, surface-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, air-to-air missiles, and air-defense control and warning units.
Military Budget: Approximately US$34.3 billion in fiscal year 1992. Efforts made for political reasons to keep direct defense expenses at about 1 percent of GNP.
Foreign Military Treaty: Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security with United States (1960); can be revoked on one-year's notice by either party and is updated by minutes periodically.
Police Forces: Independent municipal and local police forces, all under supervision of National Police Agency in 1993. National Rural Police at prefectural level.
Data as of January 1994