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Moldova Table of Contents


Chapter 2. Moldova


Antique Moldovan rug

Chronology of Important Events

Period                Description


ca. 105-270             Rome occupies territory of future
                        Romanian lands.


1349                    Prince Bogdan establishes Bogdania, later
                        renamed Moldova, stretching from
                        Carpathian Mountains to Nistru River.


1512                    Although Stephen the Great (1457-1504)
                        achieves significant victories against
                        Ottoman Empire, Moldova becomes tributary
                        state of empire for 300 years.


First Half              First Moldovan books appear.


1792                    Ottoman Empire cedes all its holdings in
                        Transnistria to Russian Empire under
                        Treaty of Ia i.


1812                    Bessarabia is incorporated into Russian
                        Empire under Treaty of Bucharest after
                        Russo-Turkish War (1806-12).

1858                    Moldovan territory west of Prut River is
                        united with Walachia. Alexandru Ioan Cuza
                        is elected prince of the two regions the
                        following year.


1917                    February Revolution and Bolshevik
                        Revolution bring down Russian Empire.
                        Bessarabia's newly created National
                        Council declares Bessarabia the
                        independent Democratic Moldovan Republic,
                        federated with Russia.

1918                    Bessarabia declares its complete
                        independence from Russia and votes to
                        unite with Romania.

1924                    Soviet government creates Moldavian
                        Autonomous Oblast on east bank of Nistru
                        River. Seven months later, oblast is
                        upgraded to Moldavian Autonomous Soviet
                        Socialist Republic (Moldavian ASSR).

1940 June               Bessarabia is occupied by Soviet forces
                        as a result of secret protocol attached
                        to 1939 Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact.

August                  Soviet government creates Moldavian
                        Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR)
                        from most of Bessarabia and a portion of
                        Moldavian ASSR.

1941                    Germany and Romania attack Moldavian SSR
                        and Ukrainian SSR; Germany gives
                        Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and
                        Transnistria to Romania.

1944                    Soviet forces reoccupy Bessarabia and

1947                    Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and
                        Transnistria are formally returned to
                        Soviet Union by treaty.

1950-52                 As first secretary of Communist Party of
                        Moldavia, Leonid I. Brezhnev liquidates
                        and deports thousands of ethnic Romanians
                        from Moldova and institutes forced

1986                    Mikhail S. Gorbachev announces policy of
                        perestroika at CPSU's Twenty-
                        Seventh Party Congress in Moscow.

1988                    Yedinstvo/Unitatea is formed by Slavs in

1989                    Moldovan Popular Front is formed.

1990 February           Popular Front organizes "Republic's
                        Voters Meeting," attended by more than
                        100,000 persons. First democratic
                        elections are held for Supreme Soviet of
                        Moldavian SSR. Runoff elections are held
                        in March. Mircea Snegur is elected
                        chairman of Supreme Soviet.

June                    Name of Moldavian Soviet Socialist
                        Republic is changed to Soviet Socialist
                        Republic of Moldova. Supreme Soviet
                        adopts declaration of sovereignty

August                  Gagauz declare an independent "Gagauz

September               Slavs in Transnistria proclaim
                        independent "Dnestr Moldavian Republic."
                        Snegur becomes president of Soviet
                        Socialist Republic of Moldova.

1991 May                Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova is
                        renamed Republic of Moldova. Supreme
                        Soviet changes its name to Moldovan

August                  August coup d'état takes place in Moscow.
                        Moldovan Parliament bans Communist Party
                        of Moldavia. Moldova declares its
                        complete independence from Soviet Union
                        on August 27 and demands withdrawal of
                        Soviet troops.

October                 President Snegur announces decision to
                        organize Moldova's own national armed

December                Stepan Topal is elected president of
                        "Gagauz Republic." Igor' N. Smirnov is
                        elected president of "Dnestr Moldavian
                        Republic." Minsk Agreement establishes
                        Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
                        President Snegur signs Alma-Ata
                        Declaration, which expands membership of
                        CIS, but Moldovan Parliament refuses to
                        ratify declaration. Soviet Union is
                        dissolved. United States recognizes

1992 March              Government of Moldova declares state of
                        emergency in reaction to mounting

May                     Armed resistance by separatists escalates
                        to full-scale civil war in Transnistria.

July                    An agreement establishing a cease-fire in
                        Moldova is signed by Moldovan president
                        Snegur and Russian president Boris N.

1993 January            Moldovan Parliament refuses to sign an
                        agreement strengthening CIS.

February                Moldovan Popular Front is reformed as
                        Christian Democratic Popular Front.

November                Moldova introduces its own currency, the

1994 February           Parliamentary elections drastically
                        change Moldovan government. Popular Front
                        majority gone, compromises made with
                        nationalities on various issues. 

April                   Moldova votes to join CIS. 

August                  New Moldovan constitution goes into

October                 Moldova and Russia sign an agreement on
                        withdrawal of Russian 14th Army from
                        Transnistria and Bendery, but only
                        Moldovan government approves it.

1995 March              Students, intelligentsia, workers, and
                        pensioners demonstrate in Chi in u over
                        cultural and educational issues and the
                        name of the language.

June                    Lieutenant General Aleksandr V. Lebed'
                        resigns as head of the Russian 14th Army
                        in protest over scheduled downgrading of
                        the 14th Army.

Data as of June 1995

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