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Welfare concerns in Nigeria were primarily related to its general lack of development and the effects on the society of the economic stringency of the 1980s. Given the steady population growth and the decline in urban services and incomes since 1980, it was difficult not to conclude that for the mass of the people at the lower income level, malnutrition, poor health, and overcrowded housing were perpetual problems.

Nigeria had no social security system. Less than 1 percent of the population older than sixty years received pensions. Because of the younger age of urban migrants, there were fewer older people per family unit in urban areas. Official statistics were questionable, however, because at least one survey indicated a number of elderly living alone in northern cities or homeless persons living on the streets and begging. There was some evidence that the traditional practice of caring for parents was beginning to erode under harsh conditions of scarcity in urban areas. In rural Nigeria, it was still the rule that older people were cared for by their children, grandchildren, spouses, siblings, or even ex-spouses. The ubiquity of this tradition left open, however, the possibility of real hardship for urban elderly whose families had moved away or abandoned them.

Traditionally, family problems with spouses or children were handled by extended kinship groups and local authorities. For the most part, this practice continued in the rural areas. In urban settings, social services were either absent or rare for family conflict, for abandoned or runaway children, for foster children, or for children under the care of religious instructors.

As with many other Third World nations, Nigeria had many social welfare problems that needed attention. The existence of a relatively free press combined with a history of self-criticism-- in journalism, the arts, the social sciences, and by religious and political leaders were promising indications of the awareness and public debate required for change and adaptive response to its social problems.

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The literature on Nigeria is voluminous and includes several classic works on Nigeria's major ethnic groups. Among these are the chapters by M.G. Smith (Hausa), Paul and Laura Bohannan (Tiv), and Phoebe Ottenberg (Igbo) in James L. Gibbs, Jr., (ed.), Peoples of Africa. Urban Hausa life and its religious and political nature is explored in John N. Paden's Religion and Political Culture in Kano. Possibly the fullest account of a northern emirate society is S.F. Nadel's A Black Byzantium on the Nupe. Kanuri culture is the subject of Ronald Cohen's The Kanuri of Bornu, while Derrick J. Stenning's Savannah Nomads is the best work available on the Fulani. Simon Ottenberg's Leadership and Authority in an African Society and Victor C. Uchendu's brief but readable The Igbo of Southeast Nigeria are recommended on the Igbo. The classic work on the Yoruba is N.A. Fadipe, The Sociology of the Yoruba. This work, together with Robert S. Smith's Kingdoms of the Yoruba, is the best general work on Yoruba political society.

Understanding Islam in Nigeria still requires looking at John Spencer Trimingham's classic, Islam in West Africa, while Islamization is well-treated in African Religion Meets Islam by Dean S. Gilliland. Possibly the most important discussion on the synthesis of Christianity and Yoruba religion is that by John D.Y. Peel in Aladura: A Religious Movement among the Yoruba.

Perhaps the best recent analysis of drought and climatic variation in northern Nigeria is Michael Mortimere's Adapting to Drought. For a general overview of population growth in Africa, including Nigeria, the World Bank study, Population Growth and Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa, is extremely useful, as are other standard World Bank and United National sources on current population trends.

Finally, much useful information on health and education can be found in the annual Social Statistics in Nigeria, published by the Nigerian Federal Office of Statistics. (For further information and complete citations, see Bibliography.)

Data as of June 1991

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Nigeria Table of Contents