Appendix B -- Cambodia

Major Political and Military Organizations

Armée Nationale Sihanoukiste, or Sihanouk National Army: Umbrella organization of the military forces (including MOULINAKA (q.v.) loyal to SIhanouk, founded in 1981 as armed wing of FUNCINPEC (q.v.).
Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (See also KPRP). Recognized by the United Nations as the official government of Cambodia, the ruling coalition in Democratic Kampuchea, a loose political and military coalition of the three resistance groups--Democratic Kampuchea, the KPNLF (q.v.), and FUNCINPEC (q. v.).
Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces. New name given to the RAK (q.v.) in the early 1970s.
FANK (formerly FARK)
Forces Armées Nationales Khmères, or Khmer National Armed Forces. Military component of Lon Nol's Khmer Republic (q.v.).
Forces Armées Royales Khmères, or Royal Khmer Armed Forces. Armed forces in the newly independent Cambodia in 1953, replaced by FANK (q.v.).
Front Uni National pour un Cambodge Indépendant, Neutre, Pacifique, et Coopératif, or National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia. Sihanouk's main political organization, formed in 1981. An autonomous part of the CGDK (q.v.).
Front Uni National du Kampuchéa, or National United Front of Kampuchea. Established by Sihanouk in Beijing in 1970, shortly after the Lon Nol coup ousted him from power; a political and military coalition committed to destroying the Lon Nol regime.
Gouvernement Royal d'Union Nationale du Kampuchéa or Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea. Government-in-exile formed by Sihanouk after his ouster in 1970.
Indochinese Communist Party; founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1930 and dismantled in 1951 into its component parties, i.e., the Vietnam Workers' Party, the KPRP (q.v.), and the Lao Itsala.
Kampuchean (or Khmer) Communist Party. Formerly called the WPK (q.v.); renamed in 1966. The CPK dominated the Khmer Republic (q.v.) resisting forces from 1970 to 1975 and ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1978. Succeeded by the KPRP (q.v.).
Khmer Bleu (Blue Khmer)
Sihanouk's domestic opponents on the right, whom he so named to distinguish them from his domestic opponents on the left, the Khmer Rouge (q.v.).
Khmer Issarak (Free Khmer)
Anti-French, nationalist movement organized with Thai backing in 1945 from elements spanning the political spectrum; within a year split into factions, and by independence all but one of them were incorporated into Sihanouk's political structure. Located in western Cambodia, they were on the wane after 1954. The only dissident group, under Son Ngoc Thanh, they became known as the Khmer Serei (q.v.), a heterogeneous left-wing guerrilla movement operating in border areas, in the 1970s.
Khmer Krom
Members of a Cambodian minority who lived in Cochinchina; early nationalists. Several major nationalist leaders came from this group.
Khmer Loeu (Highland Khmer)
Hill tribes comprising several ethnolinguistically diverse groups living in Cambodia, mainly along the northeastern and the eastern frontiers; upland- and forest-dwelling ethnic minorities, especially from Rotanokiri Province, an early RAK (q.v.) stronghold.
Khmer Republic
Established in 1970 by Lon Nol.
Khmer Rouge (Red Khmer)
The name given to the Cambodian communists by Sihanouk in the 1960s. Later (although a misnomer) it was applied to the insurgents of varying ideological backgrounds who opposed the Khmer Republic (q.v.) regime of Lon Nol. Between 1975 and 1978 it denoted the Democratic Kampuchea regime led by the radical Pol Pot faction of the Kampuchean (or Khmer) Communist Party. After being driven from Phnom Penh by Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in December 1978, the Khmer Rouge went back to guerrilla warfare, and it joined forces with two noncommunist insurgent movements to form the CGDK (q.v.). Also known as the NADK (q.v.).
Khmer Rumdo (Liberation Khmer)
Sihanoukists; pro-Sihanouk Cambodians recruited from the country's eastern provinces, trained and armed by Hanoi.
Khmer Serei (Free Khmer)
An anti-Sihanouk group under Son Ngoc Thanh's leadership emanating from the anti-French resistance movement called the Khmer Issarak (q.v.), located in southeastern Cambodia; in armed opposition to the Sihanouk regime from 1959 on, but dissolved itself shortly after the deposition of Sihanouk in March 1970. Right wing, antimonarchical nationalists.
Khmer Viet Minh
Cambodian communists; the 3,000 to 5,000 Cambodian communist cadres who had repatriated to North Vietnam after the Geneva Conference; derogatory term used by Sihanouk to refer to Cambodian leftists organizing pro-independence agitation in alliance with the Vietnamese.
Kampuchean (or Khmer) National United Front for National Salvation; also known as the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation and the Salvation Front. It was founded in 1978 by anti-Khmer Rouge (q.v.) Cambodians in Vietnam as an alternative to the Pol Pot regime, as a Cambodian structure to help legitimize the Vietnamese invasion and the ouster of Democratic Kampuchea. As the first incarnation of what has remained the main political organization in the PRK (q.v.) besides the KPRP, (q.v.) the front had numerous noncommunists, including Buddhist clergy, in its leadership, although it was largely controlled by communists. Name changed in 1981 to KUFNCD (q.v.).
Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces, also known as the Khmer People's National Liberation Army (not to be confused with the Khmer People's Liberation Army, the opposition forces organized by the Vietnamese Viet Minh at the end of World War II). Military component of KPNLF (q.v.), formed in March 1979 under Son Sann.
Khmer People's National Liberation Front. An autonomous part of the CGDK (q.v.), the KPNLF is a political and military organization, founded and led by former prime minister Son Sann, for the purpose of resisting the Vietnamese.
Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Armed Forces. Military component of PRK (q.v.).
Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party. The original party was founded in September 1951, when the ICP (q.v.) dissolved into three national parties (the leadership and policies of which were aligned with the Vietnamese communist movement). The name of the party was changed to the WPK (q.v.) in 1960 and then to the KCP (q.v.) in 1966. Today this designation applies to the communist party that functions in the PRK (q.v.). In one sense it is a new organization; in another sense it is the continuation of the communist parties that preceded it. The date of its founding is uncertain, although the First Party Congress held publicly was convened in May 1981; the party may have come into existence after mid-1978.
Kampuchean (or Khmer) United Front for National Construction and Defense. Umbrella organization of the KPRP (q.v.). (Formerly KNUFNS (q.v.).
Mouvement pour la Libération Nationale du Kampuchéa, or Movement for the National Liberation of Kampuchea; a pro- Sihanouk group formed in August 1979 by Kong Sileah after he broke ranks with General Dien Del; military organization based among the civilian camps on the Cambodian-Thai border.
National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. The successor to the RAK (q.v.--name change effective December 1979), as the armed forces of the Khmer Rouge (q.v.).
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. Called the Viet Cong by opponents, it led the struggle against the United States.
People's Army of Vietnam. The military forces of North Vietnam (until 1976) and, after unification, of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. During the Second Indochina War (1954-75), PAVN bore the brunt of the fighting against United States military forces in Vietnam.
Patriotic and Democratic Front of the Great National Union of Kampuchea. A mass organization established by the exiled KCP (q.v.) in September 1979 and headed by Khieu Sampan with the aim of ousting the Vietnamese from Cambodia.
Party of Democratic Kampuchea. New name given to the communist party in Cambodia in December 1981, when the party allegedly dissolved itself, probably to distance itself from the brutality of Pol Pot's regime.
People's Republic of Kampuchea. The Vietnamese-sponsored Phnom Penh regime established in 1979.
People's Revolutionary Youth Union of Kampuchea. Mass organization for young people that was less elitist than the communist party.
Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea. Founded by Pol Pot in 1968, this force was renamed the Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces (CPNLAF [q.v.]) in the early 1970s. Also known as the People's National Liberation Armed Forces of Kampuchea (PNLAFK). In 1979 it became the NADK (q.v.).
Viet Cong
Contraction of the term Viet Nam Cong San (Vietnamese Communists), the name applied by the governments of the United States and of South Vietnam to the communist insurgents in rebellion against the latter government, beginning around 1957. As used in the Khmer Republic (q.v.) the term applied to South Vietnamese communist troops operating in South Vietnam and in Cambodian territory as well.
Viet Minh
Contraction of the term Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi (League for the Independence of Vietnam), a coalition of nationalist elements dominated by the communist and led by veteran Vietnamese revolutionary Ho Chi Minh. Originally a broadly based Vietnamese nationalist or organization in armed opposition to both the French and the Japanese; by 1951 taken over by communists. As used in the Khmer Republic (q.v.), the term applies to Vietnamese communists, North Vietnamese in particular.