Appendix B -- Cambodia
Major Political and Military Organizations
- Armée Nationale Sihanoukiste, or Sihanouk National Army:
Umbrella organization of the military forces (including MOULINAKA
(q.v.) loyal to SIhanouk, founded in 1981 as armed wing of
- Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (See also
KPRP). Recognized by the United Nations as the official government
of Cambodia, the ruling coalition in Democratic Kampuchea, a loose
political and military coalition of the three resistance
groups--Democratic Kampuchea, the KPNLF (q.v.), and
FUNCINPEC (q. v.).
- Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces. New name
given to the RAK (q.v.) in the early 1970s.
- FANK (formerly FARK)
- Forces Armées Nationales Khmères, or Khmer National Armed
Forces. Military component of Lon Nol's Khmer Republic
- Forces Armées Royales Khmères, or Royal Khmer Armed Forces.
Armed forces in the newly independent Cambodia in 1953, replaced by
- Front Uni National pour un Cambodge Indépendant, Neutre,
Pacifique, et Coopératif, or National United Front for an
Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia.
Sihanouk's main political organization, formed in 1981. An
autonomous part of the CGDK (q.v.).
- Front Uni National du Kampuchéa, or National United Front of
Kampuchea. Established by Sihanouk in Beijing in 1970, shortly
after the Lon Nol coup ousted him from power; a political and
military coalition committed to destroying the Lon Nol regime.
- Gouvernement Royal d'Union Nationale du Kampuchéa or Royal
Government of National Union of Kampuchea. Government-in-exile
formed by Sihanouk after his ouster in 1970.
- Indochinese Communist Party; founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1930 and
dismantled in 1951 into its component parties, i.e., the Vietnam
Workers' Party, the KPRP (q.v.), and the Lao Itsala.
- Kampuchean (or Khmer) Communist Party. Formerly called the WPK
(q.v.); renamed in 1966. The CPK dominated the Khmer
Republic (q.v.) resisting forces from 1970 to 1975 and
ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1978. Succeeded by the KPRP
- Khmer Bleu (Blue Khmer)
- Sihanouk's domestic opponents on the right, whom he so named to
distinguish them from his domestic opponents on the left, the Khmer
- Khmer Issarak (Free Khmer)
- Anti-French, nationalist movement organized with Thai backing
in 1945 from elements spanning the political spectrum; within a
year split into factions, and by independence all but one of them
were incorporated into Sihanouk's political structure. Located in
western Cambodia, they were on the wane after 1954. The only
dissident group, under Son Ngoc Thanh, they became known as the
Khmer Serei (q.v.), a heterogeneous left-wing guerrilla
movement operating in border areas, in the 1970s.
- Khmer Krom
- Members of a Cambodian minority who lived in Cochinchina; early
nationalists. Several major nationalist leaders came from this
- Khmer Loeu (Highland Khmer)
- Hill tribes comprising several ethnolinguistically diverse
groups living in Cambodia, mainly along the northeastern and the
eastern frontiers; upland- and forest-dwelling ethnic minorities,
especially from Rotanokiri Province, an early RAK (q.v.)
- Khmer Republic
- Established in 1970 by Lon Nol.
- Khmer Rouge (Red Khmer)
- The name given to the Cambodian communists by Sihanouk in the
1960s. Later (although a misnomer) it was applied to the insurgents
of varying ideological backgrounds who opposed the Khmer Republic
(q.v.) regime of Lon Nol. Between 1975 and 1978 it denoted
the Democratic Kampuchea regime led by the radical Pol Pot faction
of the Kampuchean (or Khmer) Communist Party. After being driven
from Phnom Penh by Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in December 1978,
the Khmer Rouge went back to guerrilla warfare, and it joined
forces with two noncommunist insurgent movements to form the CGDK
(q.v.). Also known as the NADK (q.v.).
- Khmer Rumdo (Liberation Khmer)
- Sihanoukists; pro-Sihanouk Cambodians recruited from the
country's eastern provinces, trained and armed by Hanoi.
- Khmer Serei (Free Khmer)
- An anti-Sihanouk group under Son Ngoc Thanh's leadership
emanating from the anti-French resistance movement called the Khmer
Issarak (q.v.), located in southeastern Cambodia; in armed
opposition to the Sihanouk regime from 1959 on, but dissolved
itself shortly after the deposition of Sihanouk in March 1970.
Right wing, antimonarchical nationalists.
- Khmer Viet Minh
- Cambodian communists; the 3,000 to 5,000 Cambodian communist
cadres who had repatriated to North Vietnam after the Geneva
Conference; derogatory term used by Sihanouk to refer to Cambodian
leftists organizing pro-independence agitation in alliance with the
- Kampuchean (or Khmer) National United Front for National
Salvation; also known as the Kampuchean United Front for National
Salvation and the Salvation Front. It was founded in 1978 by
anti-Khmer Rouge (q.v.) Cambodians in Vietnam as an
alternative to the Pol Pot regime, as a Cambodian structure to help
legitimize the Vietnamese invasion and the ouster of Democratic
Kampuchea. As the first incarnation of what has remained the main
political organization in the PRK (q.v.) besides the KPRP,
(q.v.) the front had numerous noncommunists, including
Buddhist clergy, in its leadership, although it was largely
controlled by communists. Name changed in
1981 to KUFNCD (q.v.).
- Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces, also known as
the Khmer People's National Liberation Army (not to be confused
with the Khmer People's Liberation Army, the opposition forces
organized by the Vietnamese Viet Minh at the end of World War II).
Military component of KPNLF (q.v.), formed in March 1979
under Son Sann.
- Khmer People's National Liberation Front. An autonomous part of
the CGDK (q.v.), the KPNLF is a political and military
organization, founded and led by former prime minister Son Sann,
for the purpose of resisting the Vietnamese.
- Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Armed Forces.
Military component of PRK (q.v.).
- Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party. The
original party was founded in September 1951, when the ICP
(q.v.) dissolved into three national parties (the
leadership and policies of which were aligned with the Vietnamese
communist movement). The name of the party was changed to the WPK
(q.v.) in 1960 and then to the KCP (q.v.) in
1966. Today this designation applies to the communist party that
functions in the PRK (q.v.). In one sense it is a new
organization; in another sense it is the continuation of the
communist parties that preceded it. The date of its founding is
uncertain, although the First Party Congress held publicly was
convened in May 1981; the party may have come into existence after
- Kampuchean (or Khmer) United Front for National Construction
and Defense. Umbrella organization of the KPRP (q.v.).
(Formerly KNUFNS (q.v.).
- Mouvement pour la Libération Nationale du Kampuchéa, or
Movement for the National Liberation of Kampuchea; a pro- Sihanouk
group formed in August 1979 by Kong Sileah after he broke ranks
with General Dien Del; military organization based among the
civilian camps on the Cambodian-Thai border.
- National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. The successor to the RAK
(q.v.--name change effective December 1979), as the armed
forces of the Khmer Rouge (q.v.).
- National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. Called the
Viet Cong by opponents, it led the struggle against the United
- People's Army of Vietnam. The military forces of North Vietnam
(until 1976) and, after unification, of the Socialist Republic of
Vietnam. During the Second Indochina War (1954-75), PAVN bore the
brunt of the fighting against United States military forces in
- Patriotic and Democratic Front of the Great National Union of
Kampuchea. A mass organization established by the exiled KCP
(q.v.) in September 1979 and headed by Khieu Sampan with
the aim of ousting the Vietnamese from Cambodia.
- Party of Democratic Kampuchea. New name given to the communist
party in Cambodia in December 1981, when the party allegedly
dissolved itself, probably to distance itself from the brutality of
Pol Pot's regime.
- People's Republic of Kampuchea. The Vietnamese-sponsored Phnom
Penh regime established in 1979.
- People's Revolutionary Youth Union of Kampuchea. Mass
organization for young people that was less elitist than the
- Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea. Founded by Pol Pot in 1968,
this force was renamed the Cambodian People's National Liberation
Armed Forces (CPNLAF [q.v.]) in the early 1970s. Also
known as the People's National Liberation Armed Forces of Kampuchea
(PNLAFK). In 1979 it became the NADK (q.v.).
- Viet Cong
- Contraction of the term Viet Nam Cong San (Vietnamese
Communists), the name applied by the governments of the United
States and of South Vietnam to the communist insurgents in
rebellion against the latter government, beginning around 1957. As
used in the Khmer Republic (q.v.) the term applied to
South Vietnamese communist troops operating in South Vietnam and in
Cambodian territory as well.
- Viet Minh
- Contraction of the term Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi (League
for the Independence of Vietnam), a coalition of nationalist
elements dominated by the communist and led by veteran Vietnamese
revolutionary Ho Chi Minh. Originally a broadly based Vietnamese
nationalist or organization in armed opposition to both the French
and the Japanese; by 1951 taken over by communists. As used in the
Khmer Republic (q.v.), the term applies to Vietnamese
communists, North Vietnamese in particular.