Glossary -- Pakistan

fiscal year (FY)
July 1 to June 30; FY 1994, for example, ran from July 1993 through June 1994.
gross domestic product (GDP)
A value measure of the flow of domestic goods and services produced by an economy over a period of time, usually one year. Only output values of goods for final consumption and investment are included because the values of primary and intermediate production are assumed to be included in final prices. GDP is sometimes aggregated and shown at market prices, meaning that indirect taxes and subsidies are included; when these have been eliminated, the result is GDP at factor cost. The word gross indicates that deductions for depreciation of physical assets have not been made. See also gross national product.
gross national product (GNP)
Gross domestic product (q.v.) plus the net income or loss stemming from transactions with foreign countries. GNP is the broadest measure of the output of goods and services of an economy. It can be calculated at market prices, which include indirect taxes and subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies are only transfer payments, GNP is often calculated at factor cost by removing indirect taxes and subsidies.
haq mehr
Promissory gift from the bride's in-laws at the time of marriage. A kind of bridewealth based on Islamic traditions stipulated in the marriage contract, to be paid to the wife in the event of divorce or her husband's early death.
hudood (sing., hadd)
The most serious kinds of crime in Islamic law, such as those pertaining to theft and adultery.
Generally the leader of congregational prayers, implying no ordination or special spiritual powers beyond sufficient education to carry out this function. The word is also used figuratively by many Sunni (q.v.) Muslims to mean the leader of the Islamic community. Among Shia (q.v.) Muslims, it indicates the particular descendant of the House of Ali who is believed to have been God's designated repository of the spiritual authority inherent in that line. The identity of this individual and the means of ascertaining his identity have been the major issues causing divisions among the Shia.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange loans to its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans frequently carry conditions that require substantial international economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are developing countries.
A tax imposed on non-Muslims in a Muslim state meant to compensate the state for the protection given to non-Muslims who are not permitted to serve in the military.
Immigrant or descendant of immigrants from India who fled to Pakistan after partition in 1947.
mujahidin (sing., mujahid)
Fighters of a jihad, a Muslim holy war; Afghan freedom fighters.
Generic term for members of the Islamic clergy; usually refers to preachers or other low-ranking clerics who have not earned the right to interpret religious laws.
Muslims deserving of receiving zakat (q.v.) as stipulated in the Quran, such as the poor, the needy, recent converts to Islam, those who do the good works of God, and those who collect and disburse zakat.
Rule of the Prophet, i.e., rule by sharia (q.v.) law according to Zia ul-Haq's use of the term.
Term used for speakers of Pakhtu or Pashtu, who are frequently called Pathans or Pashtuns. The tribes north of Peshawar are mostly Pahktu speaking, those south of Peshawar mostly Pashtu speaking.
Tenets of the Pakhtun code of honor.
Pakhtuns (q.v.).
Successor to the founder of a Sufi (q.v.) order or of a local subdivision of an order; in the Sufi tradition, a religious man considered to have mystic powers.
rupee (R or Re; pl., Rs)
The national currency, consisting of 100 paisa. From 1947 to 1972, Pakistan was a member of the sterling area, but in 1971, when the United States dollar was devalued, the rupee was unpegged from sterling and pegged to the dollar at the rate of Rs4.76 per US$1. On May 12, 1972, the rupee was devalued from Rs4.76 to Rs11 per US$1. In February 1973, when the dollar was again devalued, the rupee maintained its value in terms of gold, and its value in relation to the dollar rose to Rs9.90 per US$1, where it remained until January 1982. After January 1982, the rupee was pegged to a market basket of currencies important to Pakistan's trade. The rupee subsequently depreciated steadily against the dollar, reaching Rs30.30 to US$1 at the end of February 1994. Notes are printed in denominations of Rs 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, 5, 2, and 1. Coins are minted in denominations of Rs1, as well as 50, 10, 5, 2, and 1 paisa.
Islamic law. Based on the Quran and the sunna (q.v.) with interpretations of Muslim jurisprudence. There are four major Sunni (q.v.) schools (of which the Hanafi is dominant in Pakistan) and one Shia (q.v.) school (Jafariya).
The smaller of the two major subdivisions of Islam. In Pakistan, the two principal subgroups of Shiism are the "Twelvers" (Ithna Ashari), who follow the same system as the majority group in Iran, and the "Seveners" (Ismailis or Agha Khanis).
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
Comprises the seven nations of South Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka; headquartered in Kathmandu. Founded as South Asia Regional Cooperation (SARC) at a meeting for foreign ministers in New Delhi on August 1-2, 1983; the group was renamed when the 1983 agreement was ratified at the inaugural summit meeting at Dhaka, Bangladesh, on December 7-8, 1985. SAARC's goal is to effect economic, technical, and cultural cooperation, and to provide a forum for discussions of South Asia's political problems.
A follower of Sufism, or Islamic mysticism.
In common usage refers to the deeds and utterances of Muhammad that form the basis for the practice of the Muslim community.
The larger of the two major subdivisions of Islam, followed by a majority of Pakistanis.
(sing., alim), Islamic scholars.
World Bank
Informal name used to designate a group of four affiliated international institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The IBRD, established in 1945, has as its primary purpose the provision of loans to developing countries for productive projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less developed countries. The MIGA, founded in 1988, insures private foreign investment in developing countries against various noncommercial risks.The president and certain senior officers of the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The four institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank group, member states must first belong to the International Monetary Fund (IMF--q.v.).
Islamic system of social welfare based on an alms tax on wealth held more than a year.