Glossary -- Sudan
- fiscal year (FY)
- An annual period established for accounting purposes. The
Sudanese fiscal year extends from July 1 to the following June
- GDP--(gross domestic product)
- A value measure of the flow of domestic goods and services
produced by an economy over a period of time, such as a year.
Only output values of goods for final consumption and
intermediate production are assumed to be included in the final
prices. GDP is sometimes aggregated and shown at market prices,
meaning that indirect taxes and subsidies are included; when
these indirect taxes and subsidies have been eliminated, the
result is GDP at factor cost. The word gross indicates
that deductions for depreciation of physical assets have not been
made. Income arising from investments and possessions owned
abroad is not included, only domestic production. Hence, the use
of the word domestic to distinguish GDP from gross
national product (q.v.).
- GNP--gross national product
- The gross domestic product (q.v.) plus net income or
loss stemming from transactions with foreign countries including
income received from abroad by residents and subtracting payments
remitted abroad to nonresidents. GNP is the broadest measurement
of the output of goods and services by an economy. It can be
calculated at market prices, which include indirect taxes and
subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies are only transfer
payments, GNP is often calculated at factor cost by removing
indirect taxes and subsidies.
- Tradition based on the precedent of Prophet Muhammad's words
and deeds that serves as one of the sources of Islamic law.
- hafr (pl., hafri)
- An excavated water reservoir fed by rainfall.
- A word used in several senses. In general use and lower-
cased, it means the leader of congregational prayers; as such it
implies no ordination or special spiritual powers beyond
sufficient education to carry out this function. It is also used
figuratively by many Sunni (q.v.) Muslims to mean the
leader of the Islamic community. Among Shia (q.v.)
Muslims, the word takes on many complex and controversial
meanings; in general, however, it indicates that particular
descendant of the House of Ali who is believed to have been God's
designated repository of the spiritual authority inherent in that
line. The identity of this individual and the means of
ascertaining his identity have been the major issues causing
divisions among Shia.
- International Monetary Fund
- Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in
1945, the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United
Nations and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange
rates and payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision
of loans to its members (including industrialized and developing
countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties.
These loans frequently carry conditions that require substantial
internal economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which
are developing countries.
- Peninsula or island; with upper case, term refers to the
cultivated lands south of Khartoum between the Blue Nile and the
- Located in the area of latitude 16o in northwest
Darfur and in Chad; region beyond the semidesert where the late
rains produce a combination of grass and herbaceous plants in
winter such that camels and sheep can graze without additional
- Small Islamic rural school that stressed memorization of the
Quran and provided some instruction in the reading and writing of
- Formerly, among nomadic and seminomadic Arab groups, an
administrative and local court under a nazir, comprising
several umudiyat (q.v.). A naziriyah
included either an entire tribe or a section of a large tribe.
- General term used for sand dunes.
- A narrow band of land bordering the southern Sahara,
stretching across Africa. It is characterized by an average
annual rainfall of between 150 and 500 millimeters and is mainly
suited to pastoralism.
- Traditional code of Islamic law, both civil and criminal,
based in part on the Quran (q.v.). Also drawn from the
hadith (q.v.); the consensus of Islamic belief
(ijma; i.e., consensus of the authorities on a legal
question); and analogy (qiyas; i.e., an elaboration of
the intent of law).
- Leader or chief. Word of Arabic origin used to mean either a
political or a learned religious leader. Also used as an
- Shia(s) (or Shüte, from Shiat Ali, the
Party of Ali)
- A member of the smaller of the two great divisions of Islam.
The Shia supported the claims of Ali and his line to presumptive
right to the caliphate and leadership of the Muslim community,
and on this issue they divided from he Sunni (q.v.) in
the first great schism within Islam. Later schisms have produced
further divisions among the Shia over the identity and number of
Imams (q.v.). Shia revere Twelve Imams, the last of whom
is believed to be in hiding.
- the Sudan
- Historic term for the geographical region stretching across
Africa from Cape Verde on the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea
between 8o and 16o north latitude;
characterized by savanna and semiarid steppe. Term derived from
Arabic bilad as sudan (literally, land of the blacks).
Not to be confused with Sudan, the country.
- Sudanese pound (£Sd)
- Sudanese currency consists of 1,000 millimes = 100 piasters =
1 Sudanese pound. As of March 31, 1991, the official exchange
rate was US$1 = £S1.30; from February 1985 to October 1987, the
official exchange rate was set at US$1 = £2.50.
- Barrier or obstruction; with lower case the term designates
clumps of aquatic vegetation that block the Nile channel; with
upper case, the term is used loosely for the entire White Nile
- From sunna meaning "custom," giving connotation of orthodoxy
in theory and practice. A member of the larger of the two great
divisions of Islam. The Sunnis supported the traditional method
of election to the caliphate and accepted the Umayyad line. On
this issue they divided from the Shia (q.v.) in the
first great schism within Islam.
- Three Towns
- Sudanese reference to the cities of Khartoum, Khartoum North,
and Omdurman. Located in close proximity to the juncture of the
White Nile and Blue Nile rivers, they form a single metropolitan
- Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock along
well-established routes by herders or by an ethnic group as a
- umudiyah (pl.,
- Formerly a political division under an umda,
encompassing a number of villages in the case of sedentary
peoples or a section of a tribe in the case of nomadic peoples.
Among nomadic or seminomadic peoples several such divisions
constituted a naziriyah (q.v.).
- World Bank
- Informal name used to designate a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International
Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance
Corporation (IFC). The IBRD, established in 1945, has as its
primary purpose the provision of loans to developing countries
for productive projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund
but administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to
furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much
easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC,
founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through
loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the
growth of productive private enterprises in the less developed
countries. The president and certain senior officers of the IBRD
hold the same positions in the IFC. The three institutions are
owned by the governments of the countries that subscribe their
capital. To participate in the World Bank group, member states
must first belong to the International Monetary Fund (IMF--